Fungal diseases can affect all tissues of the body, and even internal organs. If the disease affects the nails, it is called onychomycosis. Its appearance is caused by fungal microorganisms.
They are divided into different genera: Candida, mold, dermatophyte. The parasites actually feed on the nail plate, which leads to early destruction of the nail plate. The fungal disease itself will not go away. When the symptoms are not obvious, this is only possible when the immune system is the most powerful function and the first stage of the disease. If there are signs of illness, you can be sure that they will not be everywhere without treatment.
Fungal microorganisms are irritants. They are very tenacious. They quickly penetrate tissues and adapt to various situations. This is due to the complexity of disease treatment. If you use the same medicine for a long time, the parasite may stop responding to it.
The only cause of the disease is the entry of fungus on the nails. However, there are some factors that are conducive to its early introduction and subsequent replication. If the microorganism has corn, the microorganism is more likely to penetrate the tissue. Even dry skin can cause microcracks, and fungi can easily penetrate through the microcracks. This microbe "likes" humid environments and is therefore actively spread among people who prefer tight-fitting shoes made of poor-quality materials that are impermeable to air.
Usually, toenail fungus on the big toe can occur under various pathological conditions:
- Endocrine diseases;
- Varicose veins;
- Vascular disease
- HIV and AIDS;
- Metabolic process problems;
- Skin infection process.
Fungal microorganisms can enter the plate in the following ways:
- Contact with infected vectors;
- Visit public baths, saunas, showers;
- Put on someone else's slippers (for example, at a party);
- Living with patients with fungal diseases;
- Try on shoes
- Use unsterilized pedicure tools;
- Go to the beauty salon.
Factors that cause mycosis also include:
- Lack of proper personal hygiene;
- Preference for synthetic items;
- Wear tight-fitting shoes that do not allow the skin to "breathe";
- Frequent alcohol consumption;
- Advanced age.
If a person's feet have a circulatory system disease, the disease will have more obvious manifestations. Likewise, changes in the acid balance observed while taking antibiotics may lead to pathological processes.
Stage of disease
The surface under the nail is very beneficial for the growth of fungal microorganisms. It contains many nutrients that parasites depend on for their livelihoods. Gradually, due to the action of bacteria, damage to the nail plate occurred. The voids begin to form, and the mycelium of the fungus multiplies in them. The disease is divided into the following stages:
- initial.Correct the type of nutritional damage. Major damage will affect the center or edge of the board. Spots and streaks appear and gradually begin to grow.
- average.Represents hypertrophic changes. The characteristic of this stage is that the nail becomes thicker, its structure, and growth direction change. The pathological process gradually spread to the entire plate.
- Stages of malnutrition.In the process listed, inflammation in the nail fold area was increased. It is possible to drain pus. The lesion reached the nearby skin. Other bacterial infections speed up the destruction of nails. It starts to chip and can peel off the nail bed.
From the beginning, the symptoms are not obvious, so people often despise this disease. However, it is developing rapidly. Soon, the spots that have already appeared will start to increase. This disease can spread from the thumb to other people.
If only the thumbnail is affected, it is usually mild to moderate. Treatment should be carried out immediately.
Symptoms vary greatly with the stage of the disease. From the beginning, almost no signs of threats were noticed. As the disease progresses, the following symptoms can be observed:
- Slight itching;
- Redness in the thumb area;
- Feeling of burning.
But the pathological process has not stalled. Its growth can be judged by the following characteristics:
- The board is brittle and loses its natural luster;
- Get yellow, blue or green (depending on the type of fungal microorganisms that affect nails);
- Obvious spots and streaks appear;
- The four corners of the nail enter the roller, which is evidence of its growth and deformation.
In the later stages, the following symptoms may appear:
- Pain syndrome when walking;
- The appearance of swelling of the fingers, with obvious redness;
- Drain the pus from below the edge.
Signs of large toenail fungus may vary, depending on the type of fungus causing the infection. For example, if they are moldy fungi, the disease will be very obvious. The nails will actually turn black. There is a swollen, silver-scaly appearance, with yellow edges. The tablet starts to move away from the bed, which can cause severe discomfort. However, in 95% of cases, the cause of the infection is dermatophytes. They are characterized by a relatively moderate course of the disease.
The disease not only affects the nails, but also the entire body. This is due to the fact that toxins enter the lymphatic channels. This caused the following changes:
- Allergic reaction, skin rash;
- Gastrointestinal problems;
- Signs of poisoning.
If no measures are taken in the late stage of fungal disease, the disease will spread to internal organs. This is very dangerous.
How is the treatment performed?
How to cure toenail fungus? Pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by their enviable resistance to various effects. They quickly took root and began to actively multiply. Therefore, a comprehensive antifungal treatment is desired. This includes:
- Use local funds. It can be ointment, potion, varnish, solution. In order to overcome the disease on the surface, they need to be used. Local remedies include varnish, serum;
- Systemic drugs. They are used for obvious damage to the nail plate. The tablet is used every day. Pulse therapy is effective. It includes taking short-term medications for a long time. Then repeat the process. It should be remembered that pills may not be taken in all situations. Do not use them in the early stages of illness. These funds are very powerful and therefore have contraindications: pregnancy, childhood, kidney failure, intolerance to these ingredients.
The disease is often accompanied by bacterial complications. You can also avoid them. Anti-mold varnishes are very suitable for this purpose. It forms a film on the surface of the plate, and bacteria will not pass through the film.
In addition, it is necessary to stimulate the body's defense targets to fight infection. For this, use vitamin complexes, immunomodulatory drugs.
Most drugs have a cumulative effect. It is not enough to receive treatment once and forget it. Need to complete the course.
Even if all symptoms disappear, it will not end. The active substance will accumulate in the capsule and will continue to work even after the drug ingestion is over.
Another additional step is to remove the nails. Related to intense pathological processes. Special urea-containing products can be used for removal. If the board is rigid, several steps are required to completely remove it. Don't worry about disassembly, because it's easy. After removal, you need to treat the surface with an antiseptic. Removal is convenient because after that, topical therapy can be applied directly to the nail bed. This greatly improves their efficiency.
Folk remedies cannot replace medicine. But they are suitable for other help. The following components can help fungi:
- iodine.The affected area should be lubricated with iodine twice a day. If you have a burning sensation, you need to remove all excess food and reduce the dose;
- lemon.Apply a slice of lemon to the affected area, and then fix it with a bandage. Cellophane is placed on top;
- hydrogen peroxide.Dip a cotton pad in hydrogen peroxide and fix it on the nail for 30 minutes. Those softened areas can be removed.
After all these procedures, treatment with antibacterial topical medication is required.
It is important not only to take preventive measures for people who do not want to contract fungal diseases. They are essential for people who have just gotten rid of this disease. Prevention includes the following rules:
- Observe personal hygiene;
- Wash your feet daily;
- Lubricate your feet with a moisturizer and pedicure;
- Use personal slippers;
- Take a bath and treat your nails with preventive agents before showering. You can use lemon juice instead of special products.
The preventive measures for people who have recently suffered from mycosis are stricter:
- Use a local fungal treatment every week;
- Regular use of hot foot baths with sea salt;
- Treat shoes with antifungal compounds;
- The microorganisms in the cooked socks are completely destroyed;
- You should continue to take vitamins;
- The surface of the bath has been disinfected. It is best to also treat all other surfaces in the house.
The possibility of prevention is very high, and mycosis can be prevented. You only need to monitor the status of the feet. If unclear signs appear, seek medical attention immediately. Self-medication is not recommended because fungal diseases are easily confused with other problems. In this case, the wrong treatment will be chosen and the disease will continue to develop. In the future, all of these will be full of big problems. There is no doubt that the receipt of system funds is carried out under the supervision of physicians.